18th Dynasty


Ahmose I


Ahmose I (The Moon is Born) liberated Egypt from the Hyksos, the then rulers of Lower Egypt, and founded of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao II and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose.

Ahmose-NefertariDuring his father's reign Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos. At the age of seven his father was killed, and his brother succeeded to the throne. His brother reigned for only three years, however, and Ahmose I assumed the throne at the age of ten, being given the praenomen Nebpehtyre (The Lord of Strength is Re).

During his reign he completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.

Ahmose I married his sister, Ahmose Nefertari (pictured left), and together they had a number of children, of whom the third child went on to become Amenhotep I.

As well as honouring his mother, the king respected his powerful sister-wife. She already held the title, 'Second Prophet of Amun', and he gave her the title 'God's Wife of Amun', a title that became established as a hereditary title for the chief wife of the pharaoh.

Ahmose I also reorganized the administration of the country, re-opened quarries, mines and trade routes and began massive construction projects of a type that had not been undertaken since the time of the Middle Kingdom. His reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak.
Ahmose I
Amosis I, Amasis I, Amenes

Limestone statue head of Ahmose I

............Reign: 1539–1514 BC

..Predecessor: Kamose
i.g..Successor: Amenhotep I

...yi..i..Father: Seqenenre Tao II
...i..f...Mother: Ahhotep I

...iiiSpouse(s): Ahmose-Nefertari
.......................Ahmose-Sitkamose

...i...Children: Meritamen, Sitamun,
.............i...i.....Siamun, Ahmose-Ankh,
..........i...i........Amenhotep I


...ii.....
Nomen:

..
Cartouche - Ahmose I
......,(The Moon is Born)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: Unknown



Amenhotep I


Amenhotep I (Amun is satisfied) was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. He was born to Ahmose I and Ahmose-Nefertari, and had at least two elder brothers. However, his elder brothers both died young and, on their death, Amenhotep became the heir apparent. He acceded to the throne in 1514BC, given the praenomen Djeserkare (Holy is the soul of Re).

Stele of Amenhotep IHe inherited the kingdom formed by his father's military conquests and embarked on an administrative reorganisation of the unified Egyptian state.

He continued to rebuild temples in Upper Egypt, and revolutionized mortuary complex design: he separated his mortuary temple from his tomb, setting a trend which would persist throughout the New Kingdom.

Amenhotep died in his forties without an heir. His throne was left to one of his military commanders, Thutmose I. After his death, he was deified into the patron god of Deir el-Medina.

Amenhotep I and Ahmose-NefertariThe exact location of his tomb is still a matter of debate, although his mummy was found in the royal cache at Deir el-Bahri.
Two possible sites for his tomb are a small undecorated tomb in the Valley of the Kings (KV39), and a tomb outside the valley at Dra Abu el-Naga (AN B), but neither of these suggested sites is completely convincing.
Amenhotep I
Amenophis I

Amenhotep I

............Reign: 1514–1493 BC

..Predecessor: Ahmose I
i.g..Successor: Thutmose I

...yi..i..Father: Ahmose I
...i..f...Mother: Ahmose-Nefertari

...iiiSpouse(s): Ahmose-Meritamon

...i...Children: Amenemhat, Ahmes?
.............i...i.....

...ii.....
Nomen:

..
Cartouche - Amenhotep I
........,(Amun is satisfied)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: KV39 (?)



Thutmose I


Thutmose I (Thoth is born) was the third Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty. He acceded to the throne on the death of Amenhotep I, being given the praenomen Aakheperkare (Great is the soul of Re). His father (whose name is unknown) was from a military background, while his mother, Senseneb, was believed to have been a commoner. Queen Ahmose, his great wife, was probably the daughter of Ahmose I and the sister of Amenhotep I.

Thutmose IThutmose's eldest son Amenmose, by Queen Ahnose, became the 'great army commander of his father', but died young, around the same time as his father. Thutmose had another son, Wadjmose, and two daughters, Hatshepsut and Nefrubity, by Ahmose. Wadjmose died before his father, while Nefrubity died as an infant. Thutmose had one other son by his minor wife, Mutnofret. This son succeeded him as Thutmose II, marrying his half sister, Hatshepsut, to secure his kingship.

During his reign, Thutmose I campaigned in the Levant and Nubia, pushing the borders of Egypt further than ever before. He also initiated a number of projects which effectively ended Nubian independence for the next 500 years.

Thutmose I - obelisk at KarnakThutmose I also organized a great number of building projects, including many temples and tombs, but his greatest project, under the supervision of the architect Ineni, was at the Temple of Karnak where the complex was considerably enlarged and enhanced.

Thutmose I was the first king definitely to be buried in the Valley of the Kings. His tomb has been identified as KV38. In it was found a yellow quartzite sarcophagus bearing the name of Thutmose I. Thutmose I was not originally interred in KV38, however, but was moved there during the reign of Thutmose III from the joint tomb (KV20), which he had shared with his daughter, Hatshepsut. At the end of the New Kingdom, his body was moved again to the cache in DB320.
Thutmose I
Tuthmosis I, Thutmes I

Thutmose I

............Reign: 1493–1481 BC

..Predecessor: Amenhotep I
i.g..Successor: Thutmose II

...yi..i..Father: Unknown
...i..f...Mother: Senseneb

...iiiSpouse(s): Ahmose
.......................Mutnofret

...i...Children: Thutmose II,
.................i.....Hatshepsut,
.................i.....Amenmose,
.................i.....Wadjmose,
..........iv..i........Nefrubity
............i...i.....
...ii.....
Nomen:

..
Cartouche - Thutmose I
........,(Thoth is born)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: KV38 then KV20



Thutmose II


Thutmose II (Thoth is born) was the fourth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. He acceded to the throne on the death of Thutmose I, being given the praenomen Aakheperenre (Great is the manifestation of Re).

Thutmose II - cartouche of praenomenThutmose II was the son of Thutmose I and a minor wife, Mutnofret. He was, therefore, a lesser son of Thutmose I and chose to marry his fully royal half-sister, Hatshepsut, in order to secure his kingship. Thutmose II had a daughter, Neferure, with Hatshepsut, and also a son by a lesser wife, Iset. This son succeeded him as Thutmose III.

Upon his coronation, Nubia rebelled, as it had the habit of doing upon the transition of Egyptian kingship. The Nubian state had been completely subjugated by Thutmose I, but some rebels from Khenthennofer rose up. Thutmose II dispatched an army into Nubia rather than leading it himself, but he seems to have easily crushed this revolt with the aid of his father's military generals. Thutmose also appears to have fought against the Shasu Bedouin in the Sinai, in a campaign mentioned by Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet.

Thutmose IISome believe that Hatshepsut was the real power behind the throne during Thutmose II’s rule because of the similar domestic and foreign policies which were later pursued under her reign, first as regent then later as joint pharaoh with her husband's young successor Thutmose III.

The tomb of Thutmose II has yet to be identified. His mummy was discovered in the Deir el-Bahri cache, along with the mummified remains and funerary equipment of over 50 other kings, queens, lesser royals and nobles, including Thutmose III, Seti I and Ramesses II.
Thutmose II
Tuthmosis II, Thutmes II

Thoth

............Reign: 1481–1479 BC

..Predecessor: Thutmose I
i.g..Successor: Thutmose III

...yi..i..Father: Thutmose I
...i..f...Mother: Mutnofret

...iiiSpouse(s): Hatshepsut
.......................Iset

...i...Children: Thutmose III,
.......................Neferure

...ii.....
Nomen:

..
Cartouche - Thutmose I
........,(Thoth is born)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: Unknown



Thutmose III


Thutmose III (Thoth is born) was the fifth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. He acceded to the throne on the death of Thutmose II, being given the praenomen Menkheperre (Lasting is the manifestation of Re).

Thutmose III - praenomenDuring the early years of his reign, when he was still a child, his stepmother, Hatshepsut, acted as regent. Thereafter she was named joint pharaoh until her death in Thutmose's twenty-second regnal year. Thutmose III had little power over the empire while Hatshepsut exercised the formal titulary of kingship. Her rule was quite prosperous and marked by great advancements. When he reached a suitable age and demonstrated the capability, she appointed him head of her armies.

Thutmose III had two great royal wives: Satiah and Merytre-Hatshepsut. Satiah bore him his firstborn son, Amenemhat, but the child predeceased his father. His successor, the crown prince and future king Amenhotep II, was born to Merytre-Hatshepsut. He also had several minor wives, including Menwi, Merti and Menhet.

Thutmose III - Amada TempleAfter the death of Hatshepsut, he created the largest empire Egypt had ever seen; no fewer than seventeen campaigns were conducted, and he conquered from Niy in north Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia. After his years of campaigning were over, he established himself as a great builder as well. He was responsible for building over fifty temples in Egypt and massive additions to Egypt's chief temple at Karnak. New levels of artistic skills were reached during his reign, as well as unique architectural developments never seen before and never again after his reign. During the last two years of his reign he shared the throne with his son, Amenhotep II, who would succeed him.

Thutmose III's tomb in the Valley of the Kings, (KV34), is the first one in which Egyptologists found the complete Amduat, an important New Kingdom funerary text. The wall decorations are executed in a simple, 'diagrammatic' style, imitating the manner of the cursive script. The badly damaged mummy of Thutmose III, which was removed and re-wrapped during the twenty-first dynasty, was found in its original outer coffin in the Deir el Bahri cache, DB320.
Thutmose III
Tuthmosis III, Thutmes III

Thutmose III

............Reign: 1479–1425 BC

..Predecessor: Thutmose II
i.g..Successor: Thutmose IV

...yi..i..Father: Thutmose II
...i..f...Mother: Iset

...iiiSpouse(s): Satiah, Merytre-
.......................Hatshepsut, Nebtu,
.......................Menwi, Merti, Menhet

.nw..Children: Amenemhat,
.......................Amenhotep II,
.......................Beketamun,
.......................Iset,
.......................Menkheperre,
.......................Meryetamun,
.......................Nebetiunet,
.......................Nefertiry, Siamun

...ii.....Nomen:
..
Thutmose III - cartouche
........,(Thoth is born, beautiful of forms)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: KV34



Hatshepsut


Hatshepsut (Foremost of Noble Ladies) was the fifth/sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. When Thutmose III acceded to the throne he was a child so Hatshepsut, his stepmother acted as regent. Thereafter she was named joint pharaoh until her death in Thutmose's twenty-second regnal year. She was given the praenomen Maatkare (Truth Ma'at is the Ka of Re).

Stele of Hatshepsut and Thutmose IIIHatshepsut was the elder daughter of Thutmose I and Queen Ahmose. Upon the death of her father, Hatshepsut married her half-brother, Thutmose II. Hatshepsut had a daughter, Neferure, with Thutmose II. When Thutmose II died, his son, Thutmose III, born to the lesser wife, Iset, succeeded him. Because of his relative youth, Hatshepsut became regent in his place, assuming the responsibilities of state.

The royal court recognised Hatshepsut as the pharaoh on the throne until she died. Hatshepsut's reign was long and prosperous. She was successful in warfare early in her reign, but generally is considered to be a pharaoh who inaugurated a long peaceful era. Real power during much of her reign seems to have been exercised by Senenmut, a government official and, it has been suggested, a lover of Hatshepsut.

Hatshepsut - Mortuary Temple, Deir el-BahriHatshepsut died in Thutmose III's twenty-second regnal year. She was buried in KV20. Current thinking is that the tomb was originally the burial place of her father, Thutmose I, and that she had it altered and extended to allow her burial there as well. Her tomb was re-opened on the orders of Thutmose III, removing the body of his grandfather, Thutmose I, to rebury him in tomb KV38. Hatshepsut's mummy was not found in KV20 and it may have been moved at this time to the tomb of her wet nurse, Sitre-Re, in KV60. If the recent identification of her mummy in KV60 is correct, CT scans would indicate that Hatshepsut died of blood infection while she was in her fifties.
Hatshepsut
Hatchepsut

KV60 - Limestone sculpture of Hatshepsut

............Reign: 1473–1458 BC

..Predecessor: Thutmose II
i.g..Successor: Thutmose III

...yi..i..Father: Thutmose I
...i..f...Mother: Ahmose

...iiiSpouse(s): Thutmose II
.......................
.nw..Children: Neferure

...ii.....Nomen:
..
Hatshepsut- cartouche of nomen
........,(Foremost of noble ladies)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: KV20 *
*........







..* Re-interred in KV60


Amenhotep II


Amenhotep II (Amun is satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis) was the seventh Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty. He acceded to the throne on the death of his father Thutmose III, being given the praenomen Aakheperure (Great are the manifestations of Re).

Amenhotep II - cartouche of praenomenAmenhotep II, the son of Thutmose III and Merytre-Hatshepsut, was not the pharaoh's firstborn son; his elder brother Amenemhat, the son of Thutmose III and great wife Satiah, was the original heir to the throne. However, between Years 24 and 35 of Thutmose III, both queen Satiah and prince Amenemhat died, prompting the pharaoh to marry the non-royal Merytre-Hatshepsut. She would bear Thutmose III a number of children including the future Amenhotep II.

During the last two years of the reign of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II served as co-regent with his father. When he assumed power, Amenhotep II was 18 years old according to an inscription from his great Sphinx stele.

Amenhotep II - statue from the Temple of AmunAfter becoming pharaoh, Amenhotep married a woman of uncertain parentage named Tiaa. Amenhotep's most important son was Thutmose IV, who succeeded him; however, there is significant evidence for him having many more children. Princes Amenhotep, Webensenu, Amenemopet, and Nedjem are all clearly attested, while Laret and Ahmose are also possible children.

Amenhotep inherited a vast kingdom from his father Thutmose III, and held it by means of a few military campaigns in Syria; however, he fought much less than his father, and his reign saw the effective cessation of hostilities between Egypt and Mitanni, the major kingdoms vying for power in Syria.

Amenhotep's mummy was discovered in March 1898 by Victor Loret in tomb (KV35) in the Valley of the Kings. The tomb also proved to contain a mummy cache containing several New Kingdom Pharaohs including Thutmose IV, Seti II, Ramesses III, Ramesses IV, and Ramesses VI. They had been re-buried in KV35 during pharaoh Siamun's reign, to protect them from tomb robbers.
Amenhotep II
Amenophis II

Amenhotep II

............Reign: 1427–1401 BC

..Predecessor: Thutmose III
i.g..Successor: Thutmose IV

...yi..i..Father: Thutmose III
...i..f...Mother: Merytre-Hatshepsut

...iiiSpouse(s): Tiaa

.nw..Children: Amenhotep,
.......................Thutmose IV,
.......................Webensenu,
.......................Amenemopet,
.......................Nedjem, Laret,
.......................Ahmose (?)

...ii.....Nomen:
..
Amenhotep II - cartouche of nomen
...,(Amun is satisfied, Ruler of Heliopolis)
..
..i.i..Tomb No: KV35







---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Home..................Wiki FAQ ....................Pharaohs of the New Kingdom..............18th Dynasty (cont'd).>...........Glossary
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------