Glossary



A-C

Term Definition
Amduat The Amduat (lit. 'That which is in the Afterworld') is an ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom reserved for pharaohs and favoured nobility.
BarqueA type of sailing vessel.
Book of CavernsThe Book of Caverns is an ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom. It describes the journey of the sun god Re through the six caverns of the underworld.
Book of GatesThe Book of Gates is an Ancient Egyptian sacred text dating from the New Kingdom. It narrates the passage of a newly deceased soul into the next world, corresponding to the journey of the sun though the underworld during the hours of the night. The soul is required to pass though a series of 'gates' at different stages in the journey. Each gate is associated with a different goddess, and requires that the deceased recognise the particular character of that deity.
Book of the DeadThe Book of the Dead is the common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary text known as 'Spells of Coming Forth By Day'. The book of the dead was a description of the ancient Egyptian conception of the afterlife and a collection of hymns, spells, and instructions to allow the deceased to pass through obstacles in the afterlife.
Book of the EarthThe Book of the Earth (also known as Book of Aker and the Creation of the Solar Disc) is an ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom and later.
Book of the Night The Book of the Night is an ancient Egyptian funerary test of the New Kingdom.
Canopic ChestA canopic chest was a case used to contain the four canopic jars that contained the internal organs removed during the process of mummification.
Canopic JarCanopic jars were used during the mummification process to store and preserve the viscera of their owner for the afterlife. They were commonly either carved from stone or were made of pottery. There were four jars, each charged with the safekeeping of a particular human organ.
CartoucheA cartouche is an oblong enclosure with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name, coming into use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu.
Chariot HallThe Chariot Hall or First Pillared Hall is the name given to the first chamber beyond the Hall of Waiting in a 18-20th dynasty royal tomb found in the Valley of the Kings.


D-G

Term Definition
Deir el-Bahri CacheDeir el-Bahri (The Northern Monastery) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor. An Eleventh dynasty shaft tomb located at the southern end of the complex contained a cache of forty royal mummies, moved there from the Valley of the Kings. The bodies had been placed there by Twenty-first Dynasty priests, most likely to prevent further desecration and looting.
Diety A postulated preternatural or supernatural being, who may be thought of as holy, divine, or sacred, held in high regard, and respected by human beings.



H-L

Term Definition
Hall of WaitingThe Hall of Waiting, or Hall of Hindrance, is the name given to the first chamber in a 18-20th dynasty royal tomb found in the Valley of the Kings. It generally contains a well or pit.
Khekher FriezeAncient Egyptian decorative frieze consisting of papyrus-stalks bundled together with the floral parts at the top.
Litany of Re The Litany of Re (lit. 'Book of praying to Re in the west, praying to the United One in the west') is an ancient Egyptian funerary text of the New Kingdom reserved for pharaohs and favoured nobility.



M-Q

Term Definition
NatronNatron is a naturally occurring mixture of sodium carbonate decahydrate (soda ash) and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda). The mineral was used in mummification because it absorbed water and behaved as a drying agent.
Necropolis A necropolis is a large cemetery or burial place (from Greek nekropolis 'city of the dead').
New KingdomThe New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period.
NomenThe pharaoh's name, given at birth. The name itself was preceded by the title 'Son of Re'. It was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasized the king's role as the representative of the solar god Re.
Praenomen The pharaoh's throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, and usually accompanied by the title 'King of Upper and Lower Egypt' (nesu-bity). This form of the name first came to prominence at the end of the Third Dynasty, and later would become the most important official title of the king.



R-Z

Term Definition
Sarcophagus A sarcophagus is a funeral receptacle for the deceased, most commonly carved or cut from stone.
ScarabA dung beetle, especially the Scarabaeus sacer worshipped by the ancient Egyptians as an embodiment of the god Khepri.
ShabtiShabti (also called ushabti or shawabti) were funerary figurines placed in tombs among the grave goods and were intended to act as substitutes for the deceased, should he/she be called upon to do manual labour in the afterlife.





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