Tombs KV18 - WV22


Tomb KV18


Tomb KV18, located in the East Valley, was the burial place of the twentieth dynasty pharaoh Ramesses X. The tomb has been open in part since antiquity. Howard Carter excavated an area around the entrance in 1902, but little is known of the tomb as much of it still remains uncleared.

KV18 - tomb entranceThe tomb was unfinished and very little decoration remains. Only the first two corridors have so far been cleared. At the entrance there was a divided stairway, though only a few steps remain. Here, on the reveals and thickness of the door-jamb are the remains of the king's name. The first corridor, which was fully cut and decorated leads into a second corridor. There is a step down into this second corridor, that was never completely cut. There remains actual rough steps leading up to the abandoned workface. The ceiling here has collapsed, but a couple of large rectangular recess were cut in each wall near the ceiling.
KV18
Tomb of Ramesses X

..ii..Location: East Valley
..
.iDiscovered: In antiquity
..
iiiiExcavator: Howard Carter
..
.i.iExcavated: 1902
..
ikiTotal area: 144.32m²
..
.ki.Axis Type: Straight
..
kiDecoration:
Sunk relief
..
........Objects:
--

..
KV18 - Lintel to Gate to first corridorLittle decoration remains in the tomb. Due to flooding, the Ramessid entrance motif (pictured left) drawn by Champollion's artist Karl Richard Lepsius is lost to us; only a portion of the left hand side of the design remains visible.

Originally the scene depicted the king, together with Isis and Nephthys, kneeling on either side of the sun disc with scarab and ram-headed god.


Tomb KV19


Tomb KV19, located in the East Valley, was originally intended for Prince Rammeses Setherkhepeshef, who later became Rammeses VIII. It was taken over and decorated for Prince Rammeses Mentuherkhepeshef, a son of Ramesses IX. The tomb was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817.

KV19 - EntranceKV19 was never finished. The approach ramp to the tomb passes over the steps leading down to KV60, a non-royal tomb of the 18th Dynasty.

At the foot of the ramp is a flat landing area next to the entrance. Except for the royal tombs of Rameses VII, Rameses VIII, and Rameses IX, no tombs have entrances or corridors as wide as those found in KV19.

From the entrance, the first corridor slopes gently downward leading to a small chamber just beyond the second gate. Within this small chamber, once the beginning of a second corridor, are a shallow pit with a rectangular niche on each side wall.

The pit, which had covering slabs, may have served as the final resting place of Prince Montuherkhepeshef, although no physical remains of the prince have ever been found.
KV19
Tomb of Mentuherkhepshef

..ii..Location: East Valley
..
.iDiscovered: 1817
..
iiiiExcavator: Giovanni Belzoni
..
.i.iExcavated: 1817
..
ikiTotal area: 38.68m²
..
.ki.Axis Type: Straight
..
kiDecoration:
Painting
..
........Objects:
Architectural elements
Clothing
Human mummies
Jewellery
Vessels
Written documents


..
KV19 - Prince MentuherkhepeshefThe only decoration within the tomb can be found around the initial doorway, and on the walls of the first corridor itself. The style of decoration is similar that found in the tombs of the royal sons in the Valley of the Queens, with the exception that, here, the prince, as an adult son, is shown alone, rather than escorted by his father.

KV19 - First corridor, right wallThe entrance jambs to the corridor are adorned with red, dedication text on their outer faces, and with black text in three columns on each thickness of the jamb. Below this text are pairs of fire-spitting cobras representing Isis and Nephthys on the left, and Serqet and Neit on the right.

In the first corridor are scenes of the deceased in the presence of with various dieties and hieratic texts from the Book of the Dead.

When the tomb was cleared by Belzoni in 1817, it contained an unspecified number of intrusive burials, probably dating from the 22nd dynasty.


Tomb KV20


Tomb KV20, located in the East Valley, was the burial place of the eighteenth dynasty pharaohs Thutmose I and Hatshepsut. The tomb was noted by the French Expedition, by Belzoni, and then a clearance was attempted by James Burton in 1828, but it was not fully excavated until 1903 by Howard Carter.

KV20 - entranceAfter his initial excavation, Carter concluded that KV20 was shared by Hatshepsut and her father Thutmose I, whose burial had been transferred there from another tomb, KV38. Seventy years later, however, Romer's study showed that KV38 was actually later than KV20 and had been quarried during the reign of Thutmose III as a secondary tomb for Thutmose I. The body of Thutmose I was then moved to KV38, while Hatshepsut was left in KV20.

KV20 was possibly the first royal tomb cut in the Valley of the Kings. Its corridors, which bend clockwise, distinguish this tomb from others in the valley (see plan below).

From the entrance, the tomb descends through a series of five curving corridors, two ending in chambers with central descents, until it reaches an antechamber (on the right of the plan below). From there, a short corridor leads to the three pillared burial chamber.
KV20
Tomb of Thutmose I & Hatshepsut

..ii..Location: East Valley
..
.iDiscovered: Before 1799
..
iiiiExcavator: Howard Carter
..
.i.iExcavated: 1903/04
..
ikiTotal area: 210.32m²
..
.ki.Axis Type: Bent
..
kiDecoration:
Painting
..
........Objects:
Architectural elements
Jewellery
Sculpture
Tomb equipment
Vessels


..
The tomb was probably not finished at the time of the king's death, only extending as far as the antechamber. The remainder of the tomb seems to have been finished by Hatshepsut to allow her burial there as well. Off the burial chamber are three side chambers. Because the soft shale walls of the burial chamber were unsuitable for decoration, mortuary texts were written in red and black ink on limestone blocks which probably lined the walls.

The upper corridors are cut in good quality limestone, but the lower ones are carved in softer Isna shale and have collapsed. For many years, the tomb was a haven for bats. In 1994, flooding completely filled the burial chamber with debris, making it inaccessible.
..
KV20 - Plan and section
..
KV20 - Sarcophagus of Hatshepsut
KV20 - Burial chamber as seen by Howard Carter.
..
Most of the finds inside the tomb were fragmentary with the exception of the quartzite sarcophagus of Thutmose I, originally built and inscribed for Hatshepsut (pictured left), a second sarcophagus intended for Hatshepsut herself, a canopic chest also inscribed for her and the limestone block described above.
..
Hatshepsut mummy remains missing. Thutmose I's body, on the other hand, was discovered in the DB320 cache found at Deir el-Bahri.


Tomb KV21


Tomb KV21, located in the East Valley, was possibly the burial place of two eighteenth dynasty queens. The tomb was first excavated by Giovanni Belzoni in October 1817.

KV21 - EntranceFrom the entrance a corridor leads to a stairway followed by a second corridor. This second corridor, in turn, leads to the burial chamber, which has a central pillar and one side chamber.

The tomb is undecorated, with well cut surfaces still bearing the masons red and black marks.

It has been suggested by Donald Ryan that KV21 was a queenly tomb comparable with that Amenhotep III (WV22), as the layout of mummies reflects the queens' suite for Tiye and Sitamun found therein. Certainly two female mummies were found, with their left arm crossed on their chest, a pose only used for queens.

Unfortunately vandals entered the tomb after its discovery in 1817 and caused considerable damage, including breaking up the mummies.
KV21
Tomb of Unknown

..ii..Location: East Valley
..
.iDiscovered: 1817
..
iiiiExcavator: Giovanni Belzoni
..
.i.iExcavated: 1817
..
ikiTotal area: 120.29m²
..
.ki.Axis Type: Straight
..
kiDecoration:
None
..
........Objects:
Architectural elements
Human mummies
Minerals
Scarabs and seals
Tomb equipment
Vessels


..
The tomb suffered damage only after its modern discovery. Burton referred to it as a 'clean new tomb' which had escaped even water damage. The second opening of the tomb in 1989, however, revealed that the tomb had suffered flood damage and was filling with silt debris. Standing water damaged artifacts in the burial chamber as well as the remains of the mummies.


Tomb WV22


Tomb WV22, located in the West Valley, was the burial place of the eighteenth dynasty pharaoh Amenhotep III. The tomb, discovered before 1799, was superficially cleared by Theodore Davis in 1905-1914. It was more thoroughly excavated by Howard Carter in 1915.

WV22 - 1812 Plan of tombFrom the entrance (A) a corridor leads off in an easterly direction to the first stairwell. From here a second corridor leads to the Hall of Waiting (B), which, in turn, leads to the two pillared Chariot Hall (C).

From the Chariot Hall a side descent feeds onto a third corridor. From here, a third stairwell opens out onto the antechamber (D). and a corridor and then another stairway before communicating with the antechamber.

The antechamber leads almost directly onto the burial chamber (E) whose ceiling is sustained by six pillars in three rows of two. Between the rear two pillars, a short stairway leads down to the actual burial crypt. Within the floor of the crypt are found two recesses, including a canopic niche. The burial chamber has several side chambers leading off it. Two subsidiary burial suites, with pillar and side chamber, are also located off burial chamber.

The tomb was apparently started by Thutmose IV, as his name appears on material in the foundation deposits, but completed and decorated by Amenhotep III. It is possible that his wife Tiye and daughter/wife Sitamun were also to be buried here.
WV22
Tomb of Amenhotep III

..ii..Location: East Valley
..
.iDiscovered: Before 1799
..
iiiiExcavator: Howard Carter
..
.i.iExcavated: 1915
..
ikiTotal area: 554.92m²
..
.ki.Axis Type: Bent
..
kiDecoration:
Grafitti
Painting
..
........Objects:
Accessories
Architectural elements
Carpenters' and sculptors' tools
Furniture
Human mummies
Human remains
Jewellery
Lighting equipment
Mammal remains
Models
Sculpture
Tomb equipment
Transport
Vessels
Warfare and hunting equipment
Written documents


..
Little decoration exists in the first two corridors. The Hall of Waiting was decorated with scenes of the deceased with various dieties, Hathor leading one group of deities while Nut leads another. The antechamber walls were also decorated with scenes of the king before various deities, while in the burial chamber are similar scenes, as well as scenes from the Amduat.

During the nineteenth century, unknown visitors to the site removed several paintings of faces from the walls and pillars, some of which are now in the Louvre. (pictured below left).
..
WV22 - Heads from the tombWV22 - Faience senet board and playing pieces
..
WV22 - Relief of Amenhotep IIIMost of the finds in the tomb had been smashed into fragments in antiquity. All precious metal coverings had also been stripped, along with metal fittings and glass or semi-precious stone inlays. Some of this material was recovered by Howard Carter in 1902 while working for Theodore Davis outside the tomb of KV36. However, these fragments, including later objects recovered by a Japanese team, indicate that Amenhotep III must have been surrounded by a broad range of funerary equipment not unlike that found in the tomb of Tutankhamun. The king was apparently placed in a series of gilded and inlaid wooden coffins, with the inner coffin/mask probably of solid gold, and an outer shrine like sarcophagus. The sarcophagus was made of red granite rather than quartzite. A cobra head of lapis lazuli with inlaid eyes set in gold was found in the antechamber, and appears to come from a mask or coffin.
..
No human remains from the royal burial were found in the tomb. The mummy of the king was moved to the cache in KV35 during the reign of the twenty-first dynasty pharaoh Smendes. Also found there was the mummy initially termed the 'Elder Lady', which many now believe to be that of Queen Tiye.

There is evidence of intrusive burials, probably of the Third Intermediate Period, including fragments of a wooden coffin in the well shaft of the Hall of Waiting.




---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Home..............<.Tombs KV15 - KV17 ..................The Royal Tombs........... .....Tombs WV23 - KV31.>... .........Glossary
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More pages